趙樸初答:請談一談關于僧人剃發的問題。(漢英對照)

[居士人物問答] 發表時間:2014-05-14 作者:趙樸初 [投稿] 放大字體 正常 縮小 關閉

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【中文版】

  問:請談一談關于僧人剃發的問題。

  趙樸初答:

  根據佛制,剃發、染衣、受戒是取得僧人資格的必要條件。剃發染衣的用意是為了舍棄美好裝飾,實行樸素無華的生活。一般出家人也不留胡須,但我國有一部分僧人留須,他們認為出家時應剃須,此后可以留。南方國家的僧人則一律不留須。至于受戒并不需要在頭頂上燒戒疤。除漢族外,其他民族僧人都沒有燒戒疤的規矩。這可能與《梵網經菩薩戒本》燃身供養之說有關。

  唐朝已有煉頂(以艾燃頂)的習俗,這個習俗形成普遍的制度,據說是在元代。當時異族統治者想借以識別真假,防止抗拒法令的人民逃到僧眾里面去。這話尚待查考。

【英文版】

  Q:

  What about the practice of tonsure for Buddhist monks?

  A:

  According to Buddhist regulations, a shaved head, dyed garments, and ordination are the prerequisites for gaining the monkhood. The purpose of the tonsure and dyeing of garments is to signify giving up beautification and leading a frugal and austere life. The monks generally do not wear beards, excepting some monks in China who shave their beards upon ordination, but believe that beards can be kept afterwards. No monks in southern countries grow beards. Regarding burning dot-scars on the top of head at the time of ordination, the monastics of other nationalities do not have such regulations, it is only the Han monks who do. This tradition may be related with Brahmajdla Sutta—Bodhisatta Sila which mentions burning one's own body (or parts of body) in dedication to the Buddha.

  In the Tang Dynasty there was already a custom of scarring the top of the head with moxa cone. This was said to have become common practice during the Yuan Dynasty, when the alien rulers tried to distinguish the false monastics from the genuine ones in an attempt to prevent the law-breaking people from fleeing into the Sangha. This explanation remains to be verified.

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